Understanding the types of trucks and their specific features is key for the efficient use of transport resources and achieving a competitive edge.

This article would be especially useful to people who are just starting their journey in the world of logistics and want to learn about the pros and cons of each vehicle type. This in turn will simplify the process of making informed decisions at the planning stage and during the organization of cargo transportations.

Basically, there are several types of cargo trucks that can be distinguished by the following criteria:

  • by load capacity;
  • by body type;
  • by axial loads;
  • by availability of a trailer.

Now let’s take a closer look at each of them.


Classification of vehicles by load capacity

  • Extra light duty (up to 1 ton). Such cars are perfect for urban deliveries or getting small batches of goods across short distances.
  • Light duty (1-3.5 tons). These vehicles are widely used in various spheres including logistics, distribution and urban deliveries. Such cars could include minibus-types, brands like Gazel, ZIL, etc.
  • Medium duty (3.5-15 tons). Used for efficient and fast delivery of large batches of goods between cities, districts and regional centers. These include vans, dump trucks, haulers, etc.
  • Heavy duty (over 15 tons). Can be used for transportation of large industrial items, construction materials, raw materials, fuel, agricultural cargoes, etc. They include container carrier trucks, refrigerated trucks, etc.
  • Extra heavy duty. Typically, such vehicles are intended for the transportation of rock, ore, coal, etc., and are used off public roads.

Classification of trucks by body type

Understanding the different truck body types gives you an advantage when choosing the best fitting vehicle for specific cargo tasks, as they all have unique features and capabilities.

  • Flatbed trucks are equipped with a platform that has panels on all four sides. They are usually made of metal and can be removable or fixed. The main advantage of flatbed trucks is their versatility, which allows to transport different types of cargo.
  • Tented trucks. The body consists of a metal frame covered with a waterproof fabric (tent). It can be opened or removed for convenient loading and unloading process depending on the needs.



tented truck
  • Metal containers are widely used for hauling the bulk materials, scrap metal, large-sized waste and other solid substances.



  • Refrigerated trucks are equipped with a special refrigerating unit that allows maintaining a constant low temperature inside the body. There are 6 classes of refrigerators that can keep temperatures from -20 to 12°C. In most cases, they are used to transport food and products requiring precise temperature control, for example, pharmaceuticals.



  • Isothermal trucks ensure an equally consistent temperature inside the vehicle body made of heat-insulating materials. This body type is used to transport goods that require not refrigeration, but a certain temperature regime.

Isothermal trucks

  • Tank trucks use a special body type for transporting liquids or gas. It’s made of metal or special materials that comply with chemicals transportation safety requirements.

Tank trucks


  • Dump trucks are vehicles with a special body capable of lifting or tilting for automatic unloading of cargoes. In majority of cases, such trucks deliver sand, gravel, construction materials or grain and can come with rear or side unloading functionality.

Dump trucks


  • Haulers are used to transport cargo trailers or semi-trailers.



  • Platforms and low bed trawls. Equipment of this type stands out for its large load capacity (up to 200 tons) and availability of special fixing mechanisms. It can be used for transportation of machinery, hardware, equipment, pipes, beams, logs, etc. in large quantities.

Platforms and low bed trawls


Classification of trucks by availability of trailers

  • A trailer is a vehicle that is not self-propelled but is towed by a motor vehicle on its own axles. Depending on the purpose, trailers can be flatbed, tented, dump-type, etc.
  • A semi-trailer is attached to the hauler and cannot maintain balance on its own. Semi-trailers are distinguished by the tasks they perform. Thus, they can be tented, curtain side, van-type, car carriers, etc. They offer greater maneuverability compared to trailers.

Cargo transportations with SYNEX Logistics

SYNEX Logistics is a leading freight transportation company.

We offer reliable and safe delivery, regardless of the type of goods: consumer items, perishable products, hazardous materials, oversized equipment or other specific and challenging cargoes.

We offer a comprehensive approach to road transportations, which starts with understanding the customer’s needs and development of the most efficient logistics solutions. Due to a wide network of partners and access to various types of freight transport, we can provide the best possible options.



Reliability and safety remain the highest priorities for SYNEX Logistics. We follow high safety and quality standards, ensuring proper packaging and cargo protection during the transportation process.

We guarantee a professional approach, high quality service and timely delivery across the globe. Contact us to learn more details.

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